Looking beyond a textbook definition of their possible diversity and noting their strengths and what they can do is also helpful. • through exploration and experimentation where they are free to move and pursue self-paced activities at their individual developmental level. Australia, USQ Photo Stock. Gonzalez-Mena, J. Traditionally, inclusive education in the mainstream early years classroom focussed on catering for children with special needs, such as physical impairment or autism, and for children considered ‘at risk’ or ‘disadvantaged’ in relation to issues such as socio-economic circumstances or geographical isolation (Petriwskyj, 2010). (Background paper). London, England: Falmer Press, Dearing, E., McCartney, K., & Taylor, B. 3. Inclusion is significant as: it incorporates current thinking around child development; implements the current mandated legal … Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Developing collaborative partnerships that involve respectful communication about all aspects of a child’s learning and development helps both parties to adopt a holistic and consistent approach. Children need adults to set reasonable boundaries and help them to organise their feelings and responses. There are no separate areas or curricula for children who experience disability. Parental employment, for example, can impact the child through such things as lower levels of income, higher working hours and increased stress levels. Children need the security that comes with knowing that there are limits and that when they need help with their behaviour they will get it. Full–day kindergarten play-based learning: Promoting a common understanding.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Department of Education. Make a point of acknowledging where all the children in the group come from by simply hanging a map and tagging locations with the child’s name and country of origin. Empowering children: Play-based curriculum for lifelong learning. Empower children by acknowledging their understandings and supporting them as they develop new knowledge. Try to support children to manage their own behaviour in a way that tells the child “I know this is hard for you, but I will help you”. Children’s developmental pathways are also more diverse. Inclusion in the Preschool Setting: By Deanna Jordan: In many preschools and child care programs today you can find a growing number of special-needs children. Australia, USQ Photo Stock. (2018). While there are some exceptions many two year olds with special needs have, for example, they will also face the same challenges of being two that all children face. When done respectfully, this communication can lead to a fruitful exchange of ideas and ultimately help for the child. More children are starting school depressed and anxious – without help, it will only get worse. Correction of figure 1 from: Comprehensive evaluation of a full-day kindergarten: What do they do all day. Attention to the physical demands of daily classroom activities for example may support classroom wide intervention (Brown, Odom, McConnell, & Rathel, 2008). Towards inclusion: provision for diversity in the transition to school.International Journal of Early Years Education, 22(4), 359-379. doi: 10.1080/09669760.2014.911078, Queensland Government Department of Education. Developing effective contexts for inclusion that support children manage their own needs in diverse and different multicultural group settings is therefore an important goal in an inclusive approach to diversity in early childhood settings. Investing in early educators – through their pay, professional learning, health, and well-being – promotes the collective well-being of the entire system of early childhood. This backgrounder considers pre-school children with Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 4(1), 64-79. Children notice when adults are working and collaborating together and modelling positive behaviours. International Journal of Inclusive Education: Vol. Worhol (Eds. In fact, an article by Odom (2000) showed that in the late 1990s, nearly 70 percent of private early education centers included children with disabilities. Diamond, K., & Hong, S. (2010). But every child has the right to be supported by their parents and community to grow, learn, and develop in the early years, and, upon reaching school age, to go to school and be welcomed and included by teachers and peers alike. Towards inclusion: provision for diversity in the transition to school. The barriers can emerge from a range of issues including personal, attitudinal and organisational. Whilst social inclusion may appear to be the opposite of social exclusion it incorporates much more. The goal is to increase the participation, and the quality of participation, in early childhood education for groups with traditionally low participation rates, including children with special education needs. Global populations are becoming more mobile, generating multi-cultural societies and therefore ethnic and cultural diversity in many world nations including Australia (Arber, 2005). In W. B. Respect for diversity. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. For example, in the following scenario the educator helped Sam express his thinking, using words: Sam is building a road in the sand using a spade and a trowel. Could you please say to Peter “I am still using the spade”? Disability is an overall term defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2002) and incorporates three components: 1. Refer to the Foundations for Success website for further information https://det.qld.gov.au/earlychildhood/service/Documents/pdf/foundations-for-success.pdf#search=crossing%20cultures%20training%20teachers. A Government priority is that every child has the opportunity to participate in early childhood education (ECE). Dempsey, I., & Arthur-Kelly, M. (2008). Figure 4:3: Photograph of child with guinea pig (2018), Australia,  USQ Photo Stock. Children are naturally curious about the people around them as they attempt to develop a sense of their own identity. 3.5 based on 13 ratings . ), Early childhood inclusion: Focus on change(pp. Display and make accessible multicultural and multilingual resources. Such additions to the environment often benefit all children. Inclusion is significant as: it incorporates current thinking around child development; implements the current mandated legal standards for early childhood education and care [ECEC]; supports children’s rights; and reflects quality professional practice (ECA, 2016). (2013). Figure: 4.7: Photograph of child bouncing. Ensuring the rights and access of every child to a quality, inclusive early childhood care and education (ECCE) is an important challenge and opportunity for government, policy makers, teachers, families, and communities. Adopting a holistic approach to diversity is promoted as a strategy for educators working in contemporary early childhood settings. Inclusive education for students with disability: A review of the best evidence in relation to theory and practice.Retrieved from https://www.aracy.org.au/publications-resources/area?command=record&id=186 (2013). Children may share the same type of disability, but be completely different from each other in every other respect. (2018). Leave no child behind! Toronto, Ontario: The Laidlaw Foundation. Social inclusion infers a proactive, mindful approach that requires action to facilitate conditions of inclusion (Caruana, & McDonald, 2018). Miller, M. & Petriwskyj, A. The image of the child promoted by advocates of inclusive practices, presents the child as being so engaged in experiencing the world and developing a relationship with the world, that he or she develops a complex system of abilities, learning strategies and ways of organising relationships (Rinaldi, 2013). Interpreting these observations and applying this information when making decisions about programming and planning that relate to individual children and groups of children is also  effective in building an inclusive culture. Figure 4.3: Photograph of child with guinea pig. Livingston (2018) summarised myths under the following headings; the view that inclusion is not about disability, the perceived effects of including a disabled child in a classroom and the differences between inclusion and early intervention. Showcase a country each week or month and take the opportunity to invite parents to share words or phrases from their language, songs, music, food, traditional dance and costumes. 4. Where and when possible setting similar expectations for children will help them to be accepted. The following information, ideas and activities are designed to be a general ‘teaching toolkit’ for new teachers to implement in a mainstream early childhood classroom to assist them to be more responsive and inclusive to its diverse clientele of students and families. This process is achieved in an inclusive environment where the important adults in the child’s life provide the experiences and opportunities necessary to help children participate meaningfully in their everyday lives. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/more-children-are-starting-school-depressed-and-anxious-without-help-it-will-only-get-worse-87086. Quality child-care contributes to the emotional, social, and intellectual development of children. Siraj-Blatchford, I. Early childhood educators are key in knowing and understanding child development. What appears to be a major in hurdle in the path to finding the proper method for inclusion is the fact that very few major policy making groups have addressed the issue in decades. The Early Years Health and Development website developed by the Queensland Government Department of Education provides to a number of links for supporting inclusive practice in early childhood settings along with links to information around health and development issues. (2002). 2, pp. Current understandings about child development and learning, as well as social justice and social inclusion, indicates that relationships, interactions and experiences in children’s early lives have a profound influence on early brain development and future life outcomes (Centre on the Developing Child, 2011; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). Early Childhood Inclusion - A Joint Position Statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Research Synthesis Points on Quality Inclusive Practices Different childhoods: Transgressing boundaries through thinking differently, 3. Doi: 10.1007/s13158-013-0091-4, Petriwskyj, A., Thorpe, K., & Tayler, C. (2014). © Photo supplied by University of Southern Queensland Photography is licensed under a, Figure 4.8: Photograph of a staff member and a parent and child. Current thinking acknowledges the importance of incorporating children’s unique identities and diversities to enable positive experiences for personal growth and lifelong learning. Inclusion means that every child has access to, participates meaningfully in, and experiences positive outcomes from early childhood education and care programs. Reducing boundaries, barriers and social and economic distances between people are important when promoting a more inclusive society (Hayes, Gray & Edwards, 2008). Maximizing learning outcomes in diverse classrooms. It is a requirement of the NQF for educators to become culturally competent. While in an early childhood program, children with special needs may receive additional therapy from specialists. In this podcast the educator took the opportunity to support children to become familiar with, understand and experience being different. Beyond quality in early childhood education and care: Languages of evaluation (2nd ed.). 3. It explores the effects of Head Start programs, the social norms about parenting, and the changing ideas about education for young children. This chapter turns to research to share how preschoolers both with and without disabilities ben-efit from participating in high-quality inclusive environments. For children to learn to guide their own behaviour they need help to understand expectations and what is acceptable. Emotional attachment with other people was viewed by Bronfenbrenner as a significant element in this layer (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). This could include the school’s collaboration and cooperation with different community-based support agencies (Cortis et al., 2009 The HIPPY (for more information, refer to http://hippyaustralia.bsl.org.au/) and FAFT (Families as First Teachers) programs (for more information refer to http://www.earlyyearscount.earlychildhood.qld.gov.au/age-spaces/families-first-teachers/) assist families with young children to develop the language and interactions which best support parent-child relationships and a child’s transition to school (Dean & Leung, 2010). The starting point for successful inclusive practices is reflecting upon the image of the child. Participation restrictions experienced as the child endeavours to participate within the family and community settings. Dispelling myths associated with implementing inclusive practices through sound reflective practice, educator commitment and teamwork have been identified as starting points for successful inclusion. Around the world, children are excluded from schools where they belong because of disability, race, language, religion, gender, and poverty. The next adjacent layer, the exosystem, represents those systems or contexts that the child is not directly involved in but will still be impacted by. The Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa: Early Childhood Curriculum (Te Whāriki) (Ministry of Education [MoE], 2017) defines inclusion as comprising gender and ethnicity, diversity of ability and learning needs, family structure and values, socioeconomic status and religion. A child may ask questions about observable characteristics like skin colour, accent, or manner of dress. (Eds.). Early childhood education as an evolving ‘Community of Practice’ or as lived ‘Social Reproduction’: Researching the ‘taken-for-granted’. • by doing and interacting with real objects in a playful learning environment. These surrounding layers move out from the centre to reflect the varying contexts associated with the child at any given time in their life’s journey. • scaffold opportunities for engagement connecting children and adults. When families are well-supported by educators they may be better equipped to nurture their child’s learning and development (Hunter Institute of Mental Health, 2014). . In creating an inclusive physical environment, a shared culture of inclusion can be modelled and supported. A strong match, however, between the values of the centre and their home life is likely to lead to improved learning outcomes. Queensland state schools have access to specialists including speech/language pathologists, behaviour coaches, occupational therapists, guidance officers and learning support teachers (refer to https://education.qld.gov.au/students/students-with-disability/specialist-staff for more information). Place-based approaches to child and family services: A literature review. Early childhood is a unique period, which provides the blueprint for all future development and learning. Children learn: Receive an update when the latest issues in this journal are published, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(98)90040-0, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80022-2, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80023-4, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80024-6, Donald B. Bailey, R.A. McWilliam, Virginia Buysse, Patricia W. Wesley, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80025-8, Joel Hundert, Bill Mahoney, Faith Mundy, Mary Lou Vernon, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80026-X, Lynn Okagaki, Karen E. Diamond, Susan J. Kontos, Linda L. Hestenes, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80027-1, Joan Lieber, Karen Capell, Susan R. Sandall, Pamela Wolfberg, ... Paula Beckman, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80028-3, Karen Callan Stoiber, Maribeth Gettinger, Donna Goetz, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80029-5, Paula J. Beckman, Deirdre Barnwell, Eva Horn, Marci J. Hanson, ... Joan Lieber, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80030-1, Karen M. La Paro, David Sexton, Patricia Snyder, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80031-3, Virginia Buysse, Patricia W. Wesley, Lynette Keyes, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80032-5, Marci J. Hanson, Pamela Wolfberg, Craig Zercher, Maria Morgan, ... Paula Beckman, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80033-7, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2006(99)80034-9, select article Inclusion of young children with special needs in early childhood education: The research base, Inclusion of young children with special needs in early childhood education: The research base, select article Inclusion in the context of competing values in early childhood education, Inclusion in the context of competing values in early childhood education, select article A descriptive analysis of developmental and social gains of children with severe disabilities In segregated and inclusive preschools in Southern Ontario, A descriptive analysis of developmental and social gains of children with severe disabilities In segregated and inclusive preschools in Southern Ontario, select article Correlates of young children's interactions with classmates with disabilities, Correlates of young children's interactions with classmates with disabilities, select article Inclusive preschool programs: Teachers' beliefs and practices, Inclusive preschool programs: Teachers' beliefs and practices, select article Exploring factors influencing parents' and early childhood practitioners' beliefs about inclusion, Exploring factors influencing parents' and early childhood practitioners' beliefs about inclusion, select article Communities, families, and inclusion, select article Program quality characteristics in segregated and inclusive early childhood settings, Program quality characteristics in segregated and inclusive early childhood settings, select article Implementing early childhood inclusion: Barrier and support factors, Implementing early childhood inclusion: Barrier and support factors, select article The culture of inclusion: Recognizing diversity at multiple levels, The culture of inclusion: Recognizing diversity at multiple levels, select article Contexts of early intervention: Systems and settings: by S.K. Peer interactions for preschool children with developmental difficulties. Hunter Institute of Mental Health. (2005). The cultural and educational approach of the setting, which is generally based on the values and perspectives of the majority population, may be new to families. Curriculum considerations includes all planned and unplanned “interactions, experiences, routines and events” that occur each day (ACECQA, 2011, p. 203). Using a range of communication strategies. Two peas in a pod. It is important to get to know individual children so that the appropriate support can be offered to them. Generally, when children have a diagnosed disability or a physical disability (such as needing a wheelchair or hearing aid), the general classroom teacher has access to support in the form of outside agencies or assisted technology (Forlin, Chambers, Loreman, Deppler & Sharma, 2013). Figure 4.1: Bronfenbrenner’s social ecological model. Inclusive settings in the early years, according to the Queensland Curriculum and Assessment Authority [QCAA] (2014) sees that “educators strive to improve all learners’ participation and learning, regardless of age, gender, religion, culture, socioeconomic status, sexual preferences, ability or language. Building blocks for teaching preschoolers with special needs. (2009). Grace, Hayes and Wise (2017) provide the example of a society in which females are treated as being inferior to males by being denied equal access to education and employment, which may result in the female child possibly having reduced opportunities in life. Educators who embrace a play-based pedagogy are responsive to the individual strengths and needs of children, which lead to a naturally inclusive environment (McLean, 2016). Educators who enact thoughtful and informed curriculum decisions and work in partnership with families and other professionals provide children with the greatest opportunity for success. It is important to acknowledge children as individuals with a range of skills, emotions and experiences, both at home and at the setting, that may impact on how they cope being part of a group setting on any given day. Inclusive preschool programs: Classroom ecology and child outcomes. There has been a perception by some that inclusion of diverse children will be detrimental to other group or class members. Education 3-13, 35(4), pp.309-320. Considering the child in their social, ecological surrounds can therefore assist educators in developing clearer understandings of children and their individual, unique diverse contexts. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes, Contexts of early intervention: Systems and settings: by S.K. Next: Fostering first year nurses’ inclusive practice: A key building block for patient centred care, Opening eyes onto inclusion and diversity in early childhood education, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Supporting children’s positive individual and group identity development in ECEC is fundamental to realising children’s rights. (Information sheet 2). here, here, here and here) in Aotearoa New Zealand are frequently dominated by narratives of exclusion experienced by disabled tamariki and their whānau (see also a research overview here).This is particularly so in early childhood education where we, as ECE practitioners, have to … Play-based approaches open a setting to all learning possibilities in a way that inclusion happens as part of every-day life and diversity is welcomed and celebrated. Children learn to transfer their social and emotional skills and understandings to new situations through play and interactions with their peers. Children learn through observation and imitation (Meltzoff, 1999) and modelling by an educator becomes a powerful tool in intentional teaching. Early intervention and education for children with disabilities can have a positive impact on a child\’s cognitive and social development. Success is more likely if this step is taken from an already-existing relationship that is built on trust and respect. Impairment, which refers to body functions (for example, sensory or cognitive functions) and body structures (for example, organ or limb functions). Loris Malaguzzi (1994) suggests that the educators’ image of the child directs them in how they talk, listen, observe and relate to children. Gupta, S., Henninger, W., & Vinh, M. (2014). Philosophical Transactions Royal Society Publishing B, 371, 1-8. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.007220150072. Social exclusion arises when children suffer from multiple factors that make it difficult for them to participate in society (Hertzman, 2002). 39 2012 – Observing children, Kids Matter – Effective Communication between families and staff members, https://docs.education.gov.au/system/files/doc/other/connecting-with-families_0.pdf, https://www.communities.qld.gov.au/childsafety/partners/our-government-partners/evolve-interagency-services, https://det.qld.gov.au/earlychildhood/service/Documents/pdf/foundations-for-success.pdf#search=crossing%20cultures%20training%20teachers, http://indigenous.education.qld.gov.au/school/crossingcultures/Pages/default.aspx, http://behaviour.education.qld.gov.au/Pages/default.aspx, https://education.qld.gov.au/students/students-with-disability/specialist-staff, http://www.earlyyearscount.earlychildhood.qld.gov.au/age-spaces/families-first-teachers/, http://www.socialinclusion.gov.au/publications.htm, https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/early-childhood/kidsmatter-early-childhood-practice/framework-improving-childrens-mental-health-and, http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=147, https://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/pdf/FDK_Common_Understandings_%20Document_Eng_2016.pdf, http://www.rch.org.au/emplibrary/ccch/Need_for_change_working_paper.pdf, https://www.rch.org.au/uploadedFiles/Main/Content/ccch/UAECE_Project_09_-_Final_report.pdf, https://education.qld.gov.au/students/inclusive-education, https://qed.qld.gov.au/earlychildhood/about-us/transition-to-school/information-schools-ec-services/action-area-research/respect-for-diversity, https://www.who.int/classifications/icf/en/, http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eoah&AN=35018509&site=ehost-live. 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