The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany.Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg. Following the division of the principalities of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Lüneburg between Bernard and Henry in 1409, the territorial development of the state was largely complete. Duke Otto was followed by his sons, Otto III of Lüneburg and William of Lüneburg. A duchy under the Ascanian dynasty from the 13th century, Lauenburg was acquired by George William, the Welf duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle, in 1702. However, after Ernest's death in 1611, and given the difficulty of ever new divisions, the remaining brothers made another agreement in 1612. LC copy assembled from loose sheets. The necessary tax increases led to serious clashes with the estates. In 1592, after the death of Duke William, the territory was enlarged with the Ämter of Hitzacker, Lüchow and Warpke, but Henry's demands for a transfer of sovereignty were not met. At the 1527 Landtag recess, even those nobles who had been hostile declared their support for the new faith. In 1618 several council chambers (Ratsstuben) were set up in accordance with a new ordinance, the Regimentsordnung. Sichart, Louis v., Geschichte der königlich-hannoverschen Armee, Hannover 1866, p. 1 ff. [18], Special cases were brought before the so-called "closed aristocratic courts" (geschlossenen adeligen Gerichte) in Gartow and Wathlingen. The Ämter exercised the duke's territorial rights and were involved in the raising of sovereign taxes. Little information is available about exactly how these advocacies were established. Lauenburg was integrated into Prussia’s Schleswig-Holstein in 1876. But reconciliation with the town of Lüneburg in 1562 and the associated acquisition of part of the principality's debt and imperial taxes by the town played a major role in easing the parlous financial situation. In addition to their own administration, they also ran their own lesser jurisdictions; the chancery court (Kanzleigericht) in Celle was only responsible for dealing with major offences. Only with the emergence of Celle as the ducal seat in the middle of the 15th century did it take a clear shape, although individual advisors were members of the duke's inner circle for a long time.[14][15]. More serious crimes would be investigated by the Ämter and the sentence pronounced by the chancery court in Celle, once the case had been referred. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [16], Beginning in the 13th century, advocacies (Vogteien) emerged in the Principality of Lüneburg as providers of local administration, sometimes in parallel with the existing magistracies and sometimes based on them. [12], As well as the ducal counsellors, who at that time were noble (edelfrei) vassals, a number of medieval court offices, who had emerged in the 12th century, can still be found in the 13th. The House of Brunswick originated from the Italian House of Este. The towns of Celle, Harburg, Lüchow, Dannenberg, Hitzacker and Soltau were independent administrations and not part of the Ämter system. Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. Detailed information about the coin 1 Brakteat, Wilhelm, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, … A New & Exact Map of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lunenburg (Duchy of Braunschweig - Lüneburg) This is an original, old-colored copper engraved map of the Duchy of Braunschweig - Lüneburg by Herman Moll, from around 1720. One priority for Duke Ernest "the Confessor" was to pay off the principality's massive debts. To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. Only the Duke's bodyguard and the soldiers guarding the residence in Celle were in the permanent employ of the dukes. They drew lots: the lot fell to the second youngest brother, George, who married Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1617. In 1539, their youngest brother, Francis, who had also shared the reins of power since 1536, also abdicated and was given the Amt of Gifhorn, leaving Ernest the Confessor to rule alone.[2]. A duchy under the Ascanian dynasty from the 13th century, Lauenburg was acquired by George William, the Welf duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle, in 1702. At that time a princely council evolved, formed mainly of members of the Lüneburg ministeriales. In 1428 there was a further division of the Welf estate between the 2 brothers and their uncle, Bernard, Prince of Brunswick. The Duchy of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Lunenburg, is a small constitutional monarchy on the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire.It is bordered by Denmark to the north and Brandenburg, Brunswick and Verden to the south. they levied the manorial obligations due to the Duke. Lüneburg achieved even greater independence and had both greater and lesser jurisdictions. Through the support of the Hanseatic towns of Hamburg and Lübeck, Lüneburg achieved military superiority, so that the Celle dukes sued for peace with their opponents. After his death in 1705, George of Hanover, who was both the benefactor of Georges William's 1658 renunciation in favour of his younger brother Ernest Augustus and the husband of George William's morganatic daughter Sophie Dorothea, inherited the state of Lüneburg, which was merged into the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and finally lost its independence. English: The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. Their magistrates (Gorichter) were usually freely elected by the community under their jurisdiction, but some were appointed by the duke or a lesser noble.[16]. After both brothers had died in 1464 and 1471 respectively, Frederick the Pious left the abbey again in order to hold the reins of power for his 3-year old nephew, Henry the Middle, the son of Otto of Lüneburg and Anna of Nassau. [2], After the death of George's brother Frederick of Lüneburg, George's eldest son Christian Louis inherited Lüneburg in 1648 and became the founder of the new line of Lüneburg. In 1593, a new office of Kammerrat was created, following the adoption of a new "Chancery and Government Ordinance", to which only the governor, the Celle advocate and the chancellor reported. Göttingen, 1922, Martin Krieg: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Amtsbezirke im ehemaligen Fürstentum Lüneburg, p.108ff. Together, the two principalities continued to form the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg which remained undivided according to imperial law, something that is clear from the fact that inter alia all the princes of the various lines carried the title of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. These chambers were each responsible only for a specific area: the consistory (Konsistorium) for questions on church matters, the Kriegsrat for military affairs and the Haushaltsrat for financial management. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germ Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lauenburg-former-duchy-Germany. Example: A search for "1 franc" is more precise than 1 franc. This would continue the ducal lineage and maintain the unity of the Principality. Under this new arrangement, each of the brothers would exercise power in succession, but only one of them would marry a woman of appropriate rank (so only their children could inherit). [2] It lost its independence in 1705 when it was annexed by the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, but retained its vote in the Reichstag as Brunswick-Celle. The Celle advocate (Vogt), the chancellor and the vice-chancellor also belonged to the government. Harburg was defined as an hereditary possession and its territory increased by the district of Moisburg. In the 16th century several Welf secondary lines emerged which received their own territories: Following his marriage to lady-in-waiting Metta von Campen in 1527, Duke Otto relinquished his participation in the government of the principality, and was compensated with the Amt of Harburg as his own territorial lordship. However, it could not be described as a unified state, because many rights were owned by other vassals of the imperial crown. George William, often called the "heath duke" (Heideherzog), led the princely court during its final flourish. Herzogtum Lauenburg County On 31 December 2011the Duchy of Lauenburg County (Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg) had an area of 1,263 km 2, with a population of nearly 187,500.Nearly 100,000 of them are living in the cities of Geesthacht, Lauenburg/Elbe, Mölln, Ratzeburg (seat),Schwarzenbek and the municipality of Wentorf bei Hamburg. Göttingen, 1922. Incorporated into the Kingdom of Westphalia during the Napoleonic wars of the early nineteenth century, the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg regained independence in 1813. Life. The chancery court also acted as a court of appeal as did, from 1536, the royal court in Celle that was permanently in session. In 1671 the barony of Dannenberg went back to the Welf line in Celle. House of Brunswick Coins from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The focus of their rule in the early years was a further territorial consolidation of the principality. It was not until after the Battle of Winsen in 1388, when Wenceslas lost his life, that the Wittenbergs gave up their claims and the principality was finally secured by the Welfs. For example, there were so-called "internal, stake, fence, village, road and field courts" (Binnen-, Pfahl-, Zaun-, Dorf-, Straßen- und Feldgerichte. [18] The process for establishing the offices (Ämter) was basically completed in the 16th century with the emergence of the ecclesiastical Klosterämter after the Reformation.[16]. His rule, like his father's, was dominated by an enforced policy of debt relief. When the Harburg line became extinct in 1642, the territory reverted to the lordship of the ducal house in Celle. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball was born as a 2ball, later adopted by Germaniaball, Franciaball, East Franciaball and HREball. [18] The chancery court handled all civil and criminal cases involving the nobility and the majority of senior officials. In 1530, Ernest signed the Augsburg Confession, and brought back with him the Augsburg reformer Urbanus Rhegius, who was largely responsible for the implementation of the Reformation in Lüneburg over the succeeding decades. Then in 1610, they agreed that the Principality of Lüneburg and all its dependencies should be his and his descendants as an indivisible whole. Although the Principality of Lüneburg was not directly involved in these conflicts, the dukes in Celle made their troops available to foreign forces in return for payment for their services.[23]. [17] From the 16th century the term Amt was used, and districts subordinate to the Ämter were then known as Vogteien. In charge of the Amt was a bailiff-cum-magistrate (Amtmann), who was appointed by the duke. [2][5], The town of Lüneburg supported the Wittenbergs and took the opportunity to escape from the immediate influence of the duke, destroying the ducal castle on the Kalkberg on 1 February 1371 and forcing him to relocate his residence to Celle. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 turned it into an independent state under the name Duchy of Brunswick. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. Göttingen, 1922, Martin Krieg: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Amtsbezirke im ehemaligen Fürstentum Lüneburg, p.103ff. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg , colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg’s capital (see also: House of Hanover ). The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire. Other examples include: Duchy of Schleswig, Duchy of Saxony, Duchy of Prussia, Duchy … An attempt on 21 October 1371, St. Ursula's Day, to overthrow Lüneburg militarily and to secure the old ducal rights, failed. Relief shown pictorially. Even though Francis tried to force through his full sovereignty over his domain, important sovereign rights were retained by the ducal house in Celle. In 1728 his nephew George Louis, elector of Hanover and, as George I, king of Great Britain and Ireland, was recognized as heir by Emperor Charles VI; thus, Lauenburg became attached to Hanover. From 1378, the seat of the principality was in Celle. The brothers William and Henry received the land between the Deister and the Leine, which was later to become the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, having acquired the Principality of Calenberg; and their uncle, Bernard, received the Principality of Lüneburg, thus becoming the progenitor of the Middle House of Lüneburg. [6] In the military conflict that followed, neither the Brunswicks nor the Wittenbergs were able to enforce their claims, and only the peace of Hanover in 1373, ended the war, at least for a time. Omissions? The capital is Lüneburg and the population is around 353,000. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. The chancery was headed by the chancellor who was also a scholar. [20], From 1562 the highest, ecclesiastical court was the consistory (Konsistorium) in Celle, which was responsible for all marital matters, cases between churches and cases between the laity and the clergy. He was born into the royal family of Ernest Augustus, the duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Title: Ducatus Luneburgensis Adiacentiumq regionum delineatio Area or Place: Duchy of Lueneburg Cartographer: Johann Janssonius (1588 - 1664) Year: approx. At the head of the ducal chancery, the Kanzlei, the highest authority mentioned in the documents was the chief secretary or Kanzleivorsteher. The Lüneburg War of Succession resulted in a large plenitude of power going to the estates within the principality . see Holy Roman Empire task force page and Wiki practice, I propose we move this article to Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. This family acquired the inheritance of the Guelph family by marriage — around the year 1000 — of Azzo II with Kunigunde of Altdorf, daughter of Welf II. Another top priority was their political support for the towns, which were striving to develop themselves economically. Summary. The conscription of the Lehnsmiliz resulted from their feudal obligations to the dukes of Celle; that of the militia from their obligation to their landlords. 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